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Good health and well-being

Ensuring a healthy lifestyle and ensuring well-being for all at all ages.

     Children's health

The under-five mortality rate for the world as a whole in 2012 was almost half that of 1990. There were 17,000 fewer children dying every day than in 1990.

Since 2000, measles vaccination has prevented more than 15.6 million deaths.

Globally, four out of five under-five deaths still occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

Children born to the poorest families are almost twice as likely to die before the age of five as children from the wealthiest families.

The risk of death before the age of five also increases if children are born in rural areas and if their mothers are deprived of basic education.

     Maternity protection

Since 2000, maternal mortality has fallen by 37 percent.

In East Asia, North Africa and South Asia, maternal mortality has fallen by about two-thirds.

However, the maternal mortality rate in developing countries is 14 times higher than in developed countries.

In developing regions, antenatal care coverage increased from 65 percent to 83 percent between 1990 and 2012.

In developing regions, only half of women receive the recommended amount of assistance.

Adolescent birth rates have declined in most developing countries, but progress has slowed in this regard.

Contraceptive use has increased in most regions, but there are still unmet needs in family planning.

 

     HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

In 2017, there were 36.9 million people living with HIV worldwide.

At the end of 2017, there were 21.7 million people worldwide accessing antiretroviral therapy.

In 2017, the number of new HIV infections was estimated at 1.8 million.

In 2017, 940,000 people died of AIDS.

Overall, since the start of the epidemic, 77.3 million people have become infected with HIV and 35.4 million have died from AIDS.

Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV, killing one third of those infected.

Across the world, adolescent girls and young women face gender inequality, exclusion, discrimination and violence, which puts them at increased risk of HIV infection.

HIV is the leading cause of death for women of reproductive age worldwide.

AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adolescents (aged 10–19 years) in Africa and the second most common cause of death among adolescents worldwide.

More than 6.2 million malaria deaths were averted between 2000 and 2015, mostly among children under five in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that the incidence of malaria in the world has decreased by 37 per cent and mortality has decreased by 58 per cent.

     By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.

     By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal deaths to no more than 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 deaths to no more than 25 per 1,000 live births.

     By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, waterborne diseases and other infectious diseases.

     By 2030, reduce by one third premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.

     Improve the prevention and treatment of substance dependence, including drug and alcohol abuse.

     By 2020, halve the number of road traffic deaths and injuries worldwide.

     By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, information and education, and mainstream reproductive health into national policies and programmes.

     Ensure universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health care, and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all.

     By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from exposure to hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and poisoning.

     Intensify implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, if necessary.

     To promote research and development of vaccines and drugs for the treatment of communicable and noncommunicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, ensure the availability of affordable essential medicines and vaccines in line with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which reaffirms the right of developing countries to make full use of the provisions of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibility for public health purposes and in particular, ensuring access to medicines for all.

Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of health workers in developing countries, especially the least developed countries and small island developing States.

Build the capacity of all countries, especially developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks.

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